Navigating regulations on how to ship batteries for recycling can seem like a maze, but don’t leave the job undone.
How to responsibly ship batteries for recycling is causing many industries a massive headache. As electronic devices with built-in batteries have proliferated, so has the need for responsible recycling. But finding someone who will take on the job is usually the next challenge. Extracting batteries from AirPods or vaping devices, for example, is incredibly time-consuming even for seasoned recycling experts.
For companies that sit on batteries ready for disposal, the initial confusion often concerns how to kick off the downstream journey. Piecing together federal, state, and local laws and regulations can be challenging. They govern the packaging, labeling, manifesting, and transportation of batteries. The undertaking may seem so laborious that it’s hardly surprising if you want to shelve the project for another time.
Still, we all know getting battery recycling right is crucial, both for the sake of the environment and to comply with the laws that govern corporate electronic recycling. If you mishandle dangerous goods, it can result in disastrous consequences. Among them, for example, we find serious accidents, astronomical fines, and product blacklists that could ban your business from shipping in the future.
When it comes to that first step — shipping — many of the companies that seek our assistance have questions about the documentation that the Department of Transportation (DOT) requires. They also wonder what it takes to correctly package the batteries for pickup and when they need a hazmat-certified courier.
We routinely respond by sharing a detailed outline of how to identify chemistries and, then, how to match the information with the correct UN number and packaging requirements for each battery type.
The answers to your questions on how to package and ship batteries for recycling all depend on what you’re looking to part with:
Lithium Primary and Lithium Ion Batteries
This category of batteries has seen explosive growth in recent years. The rise stems from both rechargeable and non-rechargeable power sources. Count among them, for instance, laptops, mobile phones, tablets, medical devices, power tools, drones, cameras, and more. The challenge, as several high-profile accidents have proven, is their volatile and highly flammable state. They can ignite if dropped, crushed, or short-circuited, and cause fires if wrongly packed.
Consequently, devices that contain these types of batteries are classified as dangerous goods and 49 CFR 173 regulates their transportation.
Lead-Acid Batteries (vented and SSLA)
Few batteries deliver bulk power as affordably as lead acid. Their cost-effectiveness has made them common in cars, forklifts, marine and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and back-up power systems.
Because of their corrosiveness and short-circuit fire hazard, strict regulations apply to lead-acid batteries. First of all, you must pack batteries on pallets in a way that prevents short circuits. Secondly, you need to use cardboard to tape and separate the terminals if stacked.
The standard nickel-cadmium batteries (sealed cells and industrial cells) are considered one of the most rugged and forgiving but demands proper care to ensure longevity. While the former — sealed cells — started out as the battery of choice for two-way radios, power tools, and professional video cameras, the latter — industrial cells — see the most use in military applications, emergency backup power systems, and commercial rail systems.
At risk of overheating and short-circuiting, nickel-cadmium batteries and power packs must be packaged and shipped in accordance with 49 CFR 173.
Nickel-metal-hydride batteries are one of the most common rechargeable batteries for consumer use. Panasonic, Energizer, Duracell, and Rayovac offer them in AA, AAA, and other sizes. You also find them in electric vehicles, laptops, and cellular phones. Although not regulated as hazardous materials, all DOT packaging requirements have to be met as unprotected terminals can result in short-circuit fires.
The common alkaline battery, or the household battery, used in flashlights, remote controls, and other appliances is not regulated as hazardous materials. No labeling or special packaging is required as long as they are not shipped with other battery types. Alkaline batteries over 9V, however, need a Class 8 Corrosive label.
Once we receive your shipment at our R2-certified facility, we verify all details, including packaging and labels, before we pass it on to our downstream recycling partners. If you have any questions on how to ship batteries for recycling, our team members are here to help. Making the complex easy for our customers is what we do best.